Noun

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A part of speech that is used to name or Identify a person , Place , Thing or Idea 

Ex- Rudra , Jamnagar , Petrol etc.

There are Five types
  1. Proper Noun :-  Used to name a specific Person, Place or thing and Begins with a capital letter.

Ex:- Lucknow , Hanumant , Radha etc.

  1. Common Noun :- Used to name People , Place and things it represents the category to which a Person, Place or thing belongs .

Ex:- Continent , Bag , City etc.

Note:- If we can use Articles (A/An) before Proper Noun , it is used like Common Noun.

Ex:- You are a Rajanikant .

  1. Collective Noun:- Refers to a group of people , animal or things .

Ex:- The team is playing well . (Singular)

        The team are divided over the captaincy match . (Plural)

     (4)Abstract Noun:- Used to name emotions , Ideas , Feelings that have no physical existence . 

Ex:- Honesty , Hatred , Corruption etc .

     (5)Material Noun:- Name of material , substance with which something is made .

Ex:- Gold , wood, Silver etc

RULES OF NOUN

[1]Singular in form but  Plural in Function —

Cattle (मवेशी) , Cavalry ( घुड़सवार सेना) , Children (बच्चे) , Gentry (सज्जनता) , Infantry (पैदल सेना) , police , Peasantry (किसान) , Nobility (शरीफ) etc.

[2]Singular in form and Singular in Function —

 Debris (मलवा) , Scenery (प्राकृतिक दृश्य) , Poetry (कविता) , Applause (वाहवाही) , News (समाचार) , Ice (बर्फ) , Advice (सलाह) , Wastage (क्षय) , Information (जानकारी) , Work (काम) , Food (खाना) , Money (धन) , Jewelry (जेवर) , Evidence (प्रमाण) , Unemployment (बेरोजगारी) , bread (रोटी) , Gold (सोना) , Happiness (खुशी) , Stationery (लेखन सामाग्री) , Mischief (shararat) , Baggage (सामान) , Machinery , Furniture , Hair etc .

[3]Plural in form but Singular in Function —

     <A>Name of Subject

Mathematics , Physics , Politics , Ethics , Linguistics , Acoustic  , Economics 

     <B>Name of Games

Darts , Billiards , Chess , Draughts , Snookers etc .

     <C> Name of Diseases 

Measles , Diabetes , Rabies , Shingle , piles etc .

    <D>Titles of Books

The Arabian nights

The Gulliver’s Travels

Three Mistakes of my Life

[4] Noun Plural in form and Plural in Function

 Pants , Trousers , Shorts , Breeches , Pincers , Glasses, Boxer , Pyjamas , Binoculars , Briefs , Scissors , Chippers , Shades , Spectacles ,Goggles , Sunglasses etc .

[5] Some Noun Unchanged both in Singular and Plural —

Deer (हिरन) , Corps (सेना की टुकड़ी) , Headquarters ( मुख्यालय) , Means (साधन) , Barracks ( रहने का स्थान) , Crossroads (चौराहा) , Works (कारखाना) , Innings (पारी) , Sheep (भेड) , Date etc .

[6] Some Noun which have one meaning in Singular and another meaning in Plural —

  Singular                                       Plural

Alphabet                       Alphabets (language)

Good                              Goods (Objects)

Custom                          Customs (Tax)

Iron                                Irons (Hard Cutts)

Wood                             Woods (Forest)

Air                               Airs (Affected Manners)

Force                            Forces (Army)

Word                             Words (Language)

Quarter                         Quarters (Residence)

Work                             Works (Factory)

Regard                          Regards (well-wisher)

Read Also:- प्रतिशत

[7] Compound Noun 

<A> Noun + Noun 

      Singular                         Plural 

  Garden Chair                  Garden Chairs

  Table Leg                        Table Legs

  Ghost Story                     Ghost Stories

<B> Noun + Preposition 

       Singular                         Plural   

Mother-in-law                    Mothers-in-law 

Sister-in-law                      Sisters-in-law 

Commander-in-Chief     Commanders-in-Chief 

<C> Hyphen Words

      Singular                           Plural 

 Looker – On.                         Lookers – On

Runner – up.                          Runners – up

Posser – by.                           Posters – by

Read Also:भारत का संवैधानिक विकास

[8] Use of apostrophe (‘s)

 <A>Living Things

Apostrophe (‘s) is used with Living things 

Ex- Rajat’s Mobile 

      Cow’s milk

<B> apostrophes (‘s) is used at the end of the Compound Noun

Ex- Son-in-law’s Factory 

      lady-in-waiting’s Book

<C> apostrophes (‘s) can used with Somebody / Anybody / Everybody / Nobody 

Ex- Everybody’s hates to hear bad news.

<D> When an inanimate object is personified, it is accompanied by an apostrophe (‘s)

Ex- Nature’s Cave (प्रकृति की गुफा)

      Sun’s fury (सूर्य का प्रकोप)

<E>apostrophes are used with some honorific words

Ex- Court’s Order

      At duty’s call

Note- Apostrophe (‘s) is not used with Non-living things in general instead “of ” is used.

Ex- Book’s cover (×)

      Cover of the book ( )

 Apostrophes (‘s) is not used with Something / Anything / Everything / Nothing 

[9] Use only Apostrophe ( ‘ ) words that end with hissing sounds.

Ex- Boys’ Hostel

[10] Dozen , Hundred , Thousand , Million , Score are used in Singular forms .

Ex- I have two Dozen Apple.

  MASCULINE                              FAMINE

Man – Servant                          Maid – Servant

Milk – Man                                Milk – Maid

Land – lord                               Land – lady

Pea – cock                               Pea – hen

Doctor                                     Lady Doctor

   SINGULAR                           PLURAL 

Woman – Doctor                  Women – Doctors

Man – Servant                      Men – Servants 

Brother-in-law                      Brothers-in-law

Sister-in-law                        Sisters-in-law 

Radium                               Radii

Agendum                            Agenda

Criterion                             Criteria

Crisis                                  Crises

Syllabus                             Syllabi

Datum                                Data

Analysis                             Analyses

Leaf                                   Leaves

Knife                                  Knives

Foot                                   Feet

Wife                                   Wives

Mouse                                Mice

Matrix                                 Matrices

Index                                  Indices

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